What are ceramic tiles?
Ceramic tiles are relatively thin slabs of ceramic material in varying sizes and thicknesses. Ceramic tiles are made from mixtures of clays, sand, and other natural substances. These mixtures are prepared and are then made into the required shapes. They are then fired at high temperatures between 1000 and 1250°C, according to the type of tile. Like all ceramic materials, also tiles are hard, strong, hygienic, easy to clean, not combustible and fire resistant.
What are ceramic tiles used for?
Ceramic tiles are used to cover floors and walls. Tiles are therefore building materials that add the finishing touches and must serve two purposes: – an aesthetic function as a form of decoration; – a technical function as a building material that is able to withstand, without cracking or deteriorating, the various types of stress to which it is subjected by its environment.
What is porcelain stoneware?
The term porcelain stoneware (also known as porcelain tile) refers to an extremely compact dry-pressed ceramic tile with excellent technical characteristics (high resistance to bending, scratching, abrasion, chemicals and weathering) and, in particular, extremely low porosity. During the firing phase (1000-1350 ° C) all porosity in the product has been eliminated, allowing it to be declared as fully vitrified.
What is colored-body stoneware (UGL)?
Colored-body stoneware is a product that shows on the surface exactly the colors that are throughout the whole body of the tile. This characteristic helps in rare cases when a tile splinters and therefore the aesthetic damage is kept to a minimum.
What is colored-body glazed stoneware (GL)?
Colored-body glazed stoneware is a product colored in the mixtures of the tile’s body and further enriched by applications of enamel on the surface.
What is single firing?
This describes a glazed tile, where both tile and glaze are fired together at a temperature exceeding 1000° C: the resulting product presents good resistance to abrasion and the wear of foot traffic. It is therefore suitable to be used as flooring. Single firing can also be in white paste (richer in feldspars and kaolin) or red paste(containing greater quantities of iron). The technical features of single firing make it suitable for floor and wall tiles in private homes, where the level of resistance of the materials more than guarantees the life time of the product. On the other hand, in spaces used for other purposes such as shops or establishments that are open to the public, where foot traffic is more intense and the tile is exposed to greater stress, it is preferable to use a product having a greater level of resistance (glazed or polished porcelain stone).
What is the surface finish?
‘Surface finish’ defines the texture of the surface of a ceramic piece and the process adopted to obtain it. The matt (or natural) finish is the most versatile version in which the tile is not subjected to any other process after the cooking; the polished finish enhances shine and elegance; the structured effect simulates a process performed with specific tools that give the surface a rough and rustic effect; this finish makes the surface non-slip for use in wet environments and particular environmental conditions as well as for outdoors use.
What types of edging can gres porcelain tiles have?
Gres porcelain tiles can have three different types of edging: – natural (NAT): edging that comes exclusively from the molding of the press; – rectified (RECT): edging perfectly straight (sometimes accompanied by a slight chamfer around the perimeter of the surface) coming from squaring procedures that bring the pieces to a uniform dimension of the sides, independent of productions lots; – aged: edging that replicates a random irregularity by mechanical processing after the firing.
What is rectification?
Rectification is a procedure by which the edges of the tiles are perfectly squared. The tiles can then be laid with minimum joints thereby obtaining an aesthetically refined and elegant result. Rectification is useful especially for bathroom tiles and kitchen tiles.
What is tone?
Tone is the tonality of color that characterizes a particular lot of tiles. Considering that it is almost impossible to produce pieces with identical chromatic tonality in an industrial production, the tiles are grouped together regarding the homogeneity of color (tone) before being packed
What is shading?
The phrase “shading” is a denomination which means a passage of visible chromatic gradations that cannot be harmonized. It indicates the difference of tone of single tiles that are not homogeneous. Classes of shading have been established within which the different collections of gr?s porcelain tiles are classified: V1= uniform V2= slight V3= moderate V4= strong.